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Monday, July 14, 2014

The Wright Memorial, Wright Brothers Hill, Wright-Patterson AFB


Wright Memorial was dedicated August 19, 1940. In Ann Honious's book "What Dreams We Have- The Wright Brothers and Their Hometown of Dayton, Ohio", Chapter 12- Preservation Efforts and Memorialization, has some excellent information concerning the planning efforts of the Wright Memorial. Ann describes the memorial on Pg 224, "The design consisted of two prominent north-south and east-west axis. A seventeen-foot shaft constructed of pink North Carolina granite surrounded by three steps dominates the center of the memorial. Along one of the walls that encircle the shaft are four bronze plaques that discuss significant aspects of the memorial and the Wright Brothers. The subjects of the four plaques are the Huffman Prairie Flying field, the names of early aviators, the contribution of Wright-Field, and the prehistoric mounds located on the memorial grounds."

Wright Memorial, July 2014.

Wright Memorial, July 2014.

Mound Builders, centuries ago,  constructed at least six burial mounds at this site.


"Pioneer Flyers who were trained at Wright Brothers Field (Huffman Prairie)."


"One and One half miles east of this hill" is location of Simms Station- The world's first airport, Huffman Prairie.


Wright-Patterson Air Force Base directional arrow.



Colonel E. A. Deeds, good friend of Orville Wright, and Chairman of the Wilbur and Orville Wright Memorial Commission, is pictured below with Orville Wright, at the ceremony of August 19, 1940. Orville was presented the honorary pilot's license No. 1 at the unveiling of the monument. This license is currently on display at the Engineer's Club in Dayton, Ohio. For an amazing silent video of the day's events, see Orville Wright, and those honoring his and Wilbur's accomplishments at this NCR archives link, shared by Mark Morgan,  The Wright Brothers 1940 Memorial Dedication.

Dayton Journal Jan 31, 1948 issue of Highlights in Orville Wright's life, Col. E. A. Deeds speaking Aug 19, 1940. The Journal incorrectly listed the dedication date as Aug 20, 1941.

August 19, 1940 Wright Memorial program.

Orville Wright with E. A. Deeds at Memorial Ceremony.

Wright Memorial condition issues 74 years later, first week of July 2014. The concrete base beneath the North Carolina granite slabs had degraded over the decades, and allowed the slabs to slip out of alignment.

Wright Memorial NC granite.
Wright Memorial prior to renovation July 2014.

Wright Memorial base, July 2014.



Wright Memorial restoration work under way, second week of July 2014. Per the National Park Service, "the project has been coordinated with the State Historic Preservation Office in accordance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act; work is to be completed by August 15th. The Huffman Prairie Flying Field Interpretive Center is also undergoing some minor work this month of July.


Granite slabs set aside during restoration work.

Granite slabs removed for restoration work.


Wright Memorial restoration work under way, third week of July 2014. Loose mortar removed. 

 
Wright Memorial restoration work under way, last week of July. Granite slabs set back in place after new foundation poured and made ready. Drainage issues were addressed that existed from initial 1940 installation.



Sites at The Wright Memorial grounds, July 2014-

 
Adena Mounds.




Majestic Old Oak near Adena Mounds.



Scenic rock cliffs, trail at Wright Memorial.




Scenic trail at Wright Memorial.

Overlook for view of Huffman Prairie.

Wright Memorial.
Huffman Prairie Flying Field Interpretive Center at Wright Memorial.

Thursday, July 10, 2014

What if the Wright Brothers Had Not Experimented in Flight in the Early 1900's?

(Minor changes, 3/11/17) In Fred Kelly's "Miracle at Kitty Hawk", 1951, Kelly documents Wilbur Wright's letter to Octave Chanute, October 28, 1906-
"I am not certain that your method of estimating probabilities is a sound one. Do you not insist too strongly upon the single point of mental ability? To me it seems that a thousand other factors, each rather insignificant in itself, in the aggregate influence the event ten times more than mere mental ability or inventiveness. The world does not contain greater men than Maxim, Bell, Edison, Langley, Lilienthal & Chanute. We are not so foolish as to base our belief, (that an independent solution of the flying problem is not imminent,) upon any supposed superiority to these men and to all those who will hereafter take up the problem. If the wheels of time could be turned back six years, it is not at all probable that we would do again what we have done. The one thing that impresses me as remarkable is the shortness of time within which our work was done. It was due to peculiar combinations of circumstances which might never occur again."

What if the circumstances had been different? Orville Wright was sick with typhoid fever in 1896. What if he had not survived? The following explores that alternate time line....

Bishop Wright's Diary entries, 1896-(1)
Friday, September 4, "Reach Dayton at 4:30. Found Orville very sick with typhoid fever. The temperature at one time, days ago, ran to 105.5 degrees. Temperature is now about 102 or 103 degrees."   
Monday, September 7, "Bro. Burris takes me to Kenton, and I go on 8:50 tr. to Dayton. Orville had been better since Saturday. At home the rest of the day, and to remain till about Sept. 23."
Wednesday, September 9, "At home, Orville is about the same."
Thursday, September 10,"Orville continues the same. His fever rises in the afternoon. The doctor called."
Friday, September 11, "Orville continues to have strong fever."
Wednesday, September 16,"Orville is no better. He has an attack mentally, for the worse. It was a bad spell. He is put under opiates. He is unconscious mostly."
Monday, September 21, "I slept some in the night. I awoke at 4:00. Orville is sinking. The doctors have no hope of his recovery. At 6:30 eve. the doctor thought him dying. He revived in about an hour."
Wednesday, September 23, "This morning at 3:15, Orville passed away, aged 25 years, 1 month, 6 days. A short life, full of consequences......"
Saturday, September 26, "Orville is dead and buried! We are all stricken. It does not seem possible he is gone. Probably Wilbur and Katharine felt his loss most. They say little."

Lorin Wright stepped in and joined his brother Wilbur in the bicycle business. Tom Crouch records in "The Bishop's Sons",(2) "The production of their own line of machines marked a turning point in their financial fortunes. By the spring of 1898, Lorin reported with some pride that they were getting in better shape and keeping very busy. During the years of 1896-1900, Wilbur and Lorin constructed perhaps three hundred bicycles.(3) Wilbur had briefly expressed an interest in heavier than air flying machine experimentation, but the success of the cycle business did not allow him to pursue his temporary interest as the demand for their product required his full attention.(4)  In 1902, the brothers, working with Charles Taylor, installed a motor of their own design on their first of a line of  single-cylinder motorcycles." Crouch's history of the Wright Brothers, Wilbur and Lorin Wright, and their eventual partnership with Glen Curtiss in the Wright-Curtiss Motorcyle Company, is a classic, and a recommended read.(5) The Wright Cycle Shop pictured below, was eventually relocated from Dayton to Greenfield Village to preserve the history of the birthplace of the Wright-Curtiss hover-cycle.(6) Wilbur Wright III, grandson of Wilbur Wright(7), and mayor of Detroit at that time, was present for the 50th anniversary of the invention of the hover-cycle that continues to make Detroit one of the most successful manufacturing cities in the world, well into the 21st century.
The Wright Cycle Shop, 1936, just prior to its move by Henry Ford to Dearborn Michigan.
Samuel Langley's December 8, 1903 attempt at flight ended in disaster. Charles Manly, the pilot, found himself entangled under water, but was able to free himself from the sinking aerodrome. The press reports "Prof. Langley's ship is aimed at the Heavens and starts off, but seemingly prefers to fall, taking into the water like a handful of mortar....". Having more than exhausted the $50,000 grant from the War Department, no additional monies or interest would come from this source.(8) However, in the fall of 1904, after receiving funds from private investors, Manly was launched on the machine for one more attempt at first flight, and as Langley watched, the aerodrome split in two sections, fell, and quickly sank. Charles Manly was drowned, unable to free himself from the tangled sinking mass. Langley never recovered from the grief and public humiliation, and died in 1906, a broken man. In the course of time, history was kinder to Langley, and his memory was honored in 1928 with a memorial statue designed by the famous French Sculptor, Ferdinand Leon Delagrange, who, at 55 years of age at that time(9), was present at the unveiling ceremony. At the base of the statue, Delagrange had carved the words "Nous sommes battu."(10)
Samuel Pierpont Langley
Attempts at heavier than air flights in France had been winding down by 1902, and vanished by the end of 1904. Octave Chanute's speech to the Aero-Club of France in October of 1904,  drove the nails into the coffyn, quite frankly(11), as he made the much quoted declaration, "Not within a thousand years would man ever fly!"(12)
In 1907, the US Army seeks to purchase a Dirigible, as heavier than air flight is shown to be impossible.(13)

By the time of the Stock market crash of 1929, and the Great Depression, Wilbur Wright had taken a lesser role at Wright-Curtiss.(14) Wilbur Wright Jr. was now company president. Wilbur Sr., now in his mid-60's, had more time to devote to his other interests. Reuchlin Wright had suffered some poor health early in 1920, but pulled through(15), finding a new lease on life. He moved the family back to Dayton. Katherine married Harry Haskell, an old friend from her days at Oberlin, moving to Kansas City, but visiting Dayton often. It was during one such visit in January of 1929 (16) that Wilbur, Lorin, and Reuchlin discussed their plans with her, of attempting to solve the age old heavier than air flight problem.  Glen Curtiss had shown interest, but passed away in 1930. Wilbur Wright Sr., Lorin, and Reuchlin, the Wright Brothers(17), proved Octave Chanute's declaration of 1904 wrong, and on December 17, 1933(18), they flew a heavier than air machine at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Harry Haskell took the famous picture of first flight...actually, he set up the camera, and let Katharine take the shot(19). Wilbur told his brothers he had an eerie experience on the first flight. He said as the Flyer left the ground, he looked to his right, and swore he saw Orville running along side.(20)
Less than 60 years later, on September 12, 1992, 41st President of the United States, George H. W. Bush delivered his famous speech,(21) "But why, some say, the moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask why climb the highest mountain? Why, 35 years ago, fly the hover-cycle across the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other thousand points of light(22), not because they are easy, but because they are hard...." George H. W. Bush easily won a second term, during which, the United States put its first men on the moon. "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind" And the rest is history (or could have been).

Space Station Civilian Shuttle services at George H W Bush Space Center, Florida.(23)


Follow the irony-
1. Diary entries transition from actual entries about Orville, to entries made about Wilbur in 1912, but with Orville's name inserted.
2. In our time line, Tom Crouch wrote "The Bishop's Boys". This is a must read.
3. This was true of Wilbur and Orville.
4. Had circumstances been different....too much work wouldn't have allowed for the study of flight.
5. Curtiss had been interested in motorcycles and engines. Partners here in lieu of rivals.
6. Move over Marty McFly!
7. Wilbur didn't make the business trip to Boston in April of 1912 during which he ate bad shell fish, and so didn't contract Typhoid fever in this time line. This Wilbur marries and has children.
8. This first part is true. The remaining only occurs in this alternate time line. In our time line, Langley did not try again after the December 1903 failed attempt at flight.
9. Delagrange was killed in an aviation accident in 1910. In this time line, there were no aeroplanes for Delagrange to be killed in, so he lives a full life.
10. A play on Leon Delagrange's statement after seeing Wilbur fly in 1908, "Nous sommes battu" (We are beaten).
11. Play on aviator's name Frank Coffyn.
12. Statement attributed to Wilbur Wright on train returning from Kitty Hawk after a difficult season in 1901.
13. Actual news article, the Army was interested in both lighter than air, and heavier than air flights.
14. At least in this time line, the names are in the correct order!
15. Reuchlin passed away in 1920. In this time line, he survives.
16. In this time line, Katharine is visiting Dayton in early 1929, and therefore does not catch pneumonia, and does not die of it in 1929.
17. Wilbur, Lorin, Reuchlin, the Wright Brothers, in this time line.
18.  First flight, 30 years later than our time line. If the Wright's had not experimented in flight, when would have first flight occurred? It was Octave Chanute's talks about the Wright's experiments that encouraged others to pursue the dream. If not for the Wright's progress, how many years would have passed before first flight?
19. In lieu of John T. Daniels, who took the famous 1903 first flight photo.
20. Orville and Wilbur were a team. I don't know if Wilbur would have accomplished the feat with the help of his other brothers in lieu of Orville's help. The intent of the post, really, was to suggest that without the early experiments of 1899-1905, perhaps we wouldn't have seen a working heavier than air machine for many many years, and perhaps WW1 would have been quite different.
21. Kennedy wouldn't make this speech in this time line, because everything related to flight has shifted 30 years.
22. Bush's famous line "A thousand points of light".
23. It's the Bush Space Center, not the Kennedy Space Center, in this time line.


 Check out another alternate time line blog, "An alternate time line- The 1905 Wright Flyer III Flies Again!"
 

Friday, July 4, 2014

The Wright Brothers 1909 Celebration, Dayton Ohio

(Updated 11/08/18) Wright Brothers' Home Days Celebration, 1909 (published 2003, Carillon Historical Park) with photo's of Andrew S. Iddings and text by Mark Bernstein is an excellent telling of events of Dayton's recognition of Wilbur and Orville Wright's accomplishments. Page 2, Mark writes "All the photographs that follow were taken by a Dayton attorney, Andrew S. Iddings. As Iddings was working entirely on his own behest, this record of the event is not complete. (Link for Wright State University Archives Andrew S. Iddings information.)  Most of the photographs were taken at the Montgomery County Fairgrounds and during the Grand Parade through town that afternoon." Day one of the Celebration, June 17, 1909, began with "all factories and others having whistles and bells to blow or ring them for a period not to exceed 10 minutes." Mark writes "At 2:30 p.m. , the Dayton fire department and units of the U.S. Army and Navy paraded down Main Street from Monument Avenue to Sixth." On page 14, a street view of the fire department parade is shown (Link for WSU core scholar archive photo)


Dayton's Sons Have Shown The Way: All Nations Bow In Acknowledgment
In anticipation of the Celebration to follow on Thursday and Friday, the Wednesday June 16th issue of the Dayton Daily News pictures how Dayton's skyline may appear in the years to come, with Wright Flyers a common sight.(5)
Dayton Daily News June 16, 1909
Wilbur and Orville's sense of humor shines through in this account printed in the Dayton Daily News June 16, 1909 issue. Pressed to give a speech in Paris, "Wilbur arose and said: "Of all the birds of the air the parrot is the best talker, but it is the poorest flyer." And he sat down. There were loud calls for Orville, and finally he, too, made a speech. He said: "I have but one criticism to offer on my brother's speech. It was too long."(5)

Photos of Bishop Milton Wright and Susan Wright, and of Orville (at age 9) and Wilbur (at age 13), from article in Wednesday June 16th, 1909 issue of The Dayton Daily News. Note the open Bible. Susan had died 20 years prior to the Dayton Wright Brother Home Celebration.(5)

Keys of City are Presented To Her Distinguished Sons
Dayton Daily News June 17th, 1909 news of Dayton Wright Brother Home Celebration. Keys of City are Presented To Her Distinguished Sons.(5)



Dayton Daily News June 18th, 1909, Nation, State and City Unite in the Bestowal of Tributes Upon Wrights.(5)
Wright Brother Dayton Home Celebration, O.B. Kneisly scrapbook.
June 18, 1909 Dayton Journal "City Goes Wild Over Deeds of Talented Sons"; from page in scrapbook assembled by O. B. Kneisly.
A reception was held at the YMCA Thursday evening, and after shaking the hands of 5000 admirers, "the instinct of self preservation compelled them to cease handshaking and respond to the greetings of their friends by bows and smiles". From Dayton Daily News, June 18th, 1909 issue.


Below, is a photograph of the fireman's parade perhaps taken from the upper floor levels of the United Brethren Publishing House. The scene is looking north on main street. The old Courthouse can be seen at the area with the two sets of four columns, center left. Furthermost north, the Soldier's Monument can be seen, just beyond which is the main street bridge crossing the Great Miami River. I believe Andrew Iddings was standing just beyond the two sets of four columns on the west side of Main Street as he took the pg 14 photo mentioned above. The photo below likely captures Iddings on the street taking the photo of page 14, and it would be fun investigative work to identify him if possible, as the resolution of this scene is quite high. The photo below is signed "Complements of Edward E. Burkhart." Burkhart served as Dayton's mayor from 1908 to 1911. Page 46 of Mark Bernstein's book, he writes "In presenting the city's medals (to Wilbur and Orville Wright), Mayor Edward Burkhart stated, 'With the perfect development of aeroplanes, wars will be only an incident of past ages.'" Ok, so Burkhart wasn't the greatest prophet.....

Signed by Edward Burkhart, mayor of Dayton in 1909
Wright Brother's Home Celebration, June 17, 1909, 2:30pm, signed Complements of Edward E. Burkhart.(4)


Photos combined by author, from west and east side of Main Street looking north, taken perhaps 30 seconds apart by two photographers in buildings on opposite sides of the street. Click on photo to enlarge image. Provides illusion of seeing buildings and decorations on both sides of street. Photo on left from postcard image, and photo on right from unpublished original in author's collection. Friday June 18th, 2:30pm 1909 parade.

From Matt Yanney collection- Wright Brother's Home Celebration, Dayton Ohio.
Crowds on the sidewalks and seated in the windows during June 17th parade and drill by the Dayton Fire Department.(6)


From Matt Yanney collection
Crowds on the rooftops and in window balconies, June 18th. Can you imagine allowing this today? I am not aware of any report of anyone falling during either day of the celebration.(6)

From Matt Yanney collection
June 17th fireman's parade heading south on Main Street. I don't know the identity of the people in the carriages. I assume Fire chiefs, or people of importance in Dayton. Anyone with more information, please comment, and I'll add to this post.(6)


From Matt Yanney collection.
June 18th parade, the third division,  heading north on Main Street. The first sixteen floats depicted the development of transportation in the U.S. Seen here lower right is the float with the Wright Flyer circling a globe. Leading this float is a group of costumed people representing people of the World's nations. Further north is the float that carries the Festival queen Helen B. Fishter. Further north is the float with a model of an airship, and leading is the float with a small hot air balloon.(6)
Milton Wright made this entry in his diary June 18th, 1909-
"It was a lovely day. Went at 10:30 to Fairground. Children sing. 'Star Spangled Banner' made the invocation. Lieut. Allen spoke and presented the Congressional Medals. Gov. Harmon the Ohio Medal, Mayor Burkhart, presented the City medal. Return home. Attended the parade in afternoon. Also auto-mobile parade at night. Grand stand, 1st & Monument Ave."(7)

I took the following photographs of Main Street in Dayton, from the upper level of the Centre City Building in November of 2011. Centre City Building was originally known as the United Brethren Publishing House, the location of the Wright Brothers Exhibition office in 1910 and 1911, and the location for the publication of the Religious Telescope. Comparing the two photographs of 1909 and 2011, two points of reference common to each are the Old Court House, and Soldiers Monument.(The Court House construction was completed in 1850; in 1859 Abraham Lincoln stood at those front stone steps during his presidential campaign.)

Photo by Matt Yanney
2011, looking north from upper level of Centre City Building, known as the United Brethren Publishing House in 1909.(1)


Photo by Matt Yanney 2011
Close up of Old Court House, 2011, location of "Court of Honor" during 1909 Wright Brother Home Celebration.(1)

From Matt Yanney collection, Edward Burkhart signed photo
Close up of Old Court House, and "Court of Honor", 1909.

Photo by Matt Yanney
August 2018 view of "Court House Square", photo by author.

The postcard views below are interesting in that they show the contrast from the joyous 1909 parade to deadly 1913 flood waters passing by the historical Court House structure. See my post "The 1913 Dayton Flood, and the Wright Family". 



Dayton Ohio Main Street from Court House looking North.
Post card at left shows view from steps of Court House looking north down Main Street, March 26, 1913, during the Dayton Flood. Postcard to right shows same street section during 1909 Wright Brother Home Celebration. Click photos to enlarge.(3)

From the Centre City (United Brethren Publishing House) Building, looking south on Main Street,  among the path of the 1909 Celebration parade, now stands a sculpture commemorating the first flight of December 17th, 1903.


Photo by Matt Yanney 2011
2011, looking south down Main Street from upper level of Centre City Building, view of "Flyover" Sculpture.(1)

Photo 2011 by Matt Yanney
"Flyover", unveiled in 1996, commemorates Orville Wright's December 17, 1903 12 second flight, actual arc of flight(1)


Dayton, Ohio, photo August 2018 by Matt Yanney
Northern view of Centre City Building, August 2018, photo by author.


Many various postcard views associated with the two day celebration were printed, and the ones with personal invitations or eyewitness accounts of the event have special significance, and several are shared below:




Postmarked June 14, 1909, "If possible, come down Wednesday with Hazel for the Wright Bros. celebration."(3)




Postmarked July 2, 1909, "Dear Grace, I just returned from the Dayton Celebration, I saw this living flag...."(3)




Postmarked June 11, 1909, "I would like to know if you can come over for the Wright Brothers, the 17 & 18..."(3)




"Here are seven scenes which were taken during the Wright Bros. Celebration. The Court of Honor was from Third to Monument Ave. It was just beautiful especially at night."(3)

This next photo postcard is exceptionally nice, high detail, and a really nice eye witness message on the back. The statues in the photo are one of four pairs. Mark Bernstein indicates on pg 99 of Wright Brothers' Home Days Celebration, 1909- "Four pairs of 12-foot statues framed the Court of Honor, with each pair separated by an evergreen and strung with wreath and roping. The statues were the work of Joseph Adelbart Horchert, a German-born sculptor..." Mark notes that the celebration cost $30,000. The message on this card makes note that the Court of Honor cost the city $3350. Henry Kabierske was the decorator and designer of the event, and was assisted by Horchert. This scene is looking north on Main street. Steele High School can be seen at upper left (pointed high tower). Katharine Wright taught here up to a year before this event.


Joseph Adelbart Horchert statue pair, 12-foot each,  each holding a Wright Flyer model.(3)

From Matt Yanney collection
Message on rear of postcard (3)

"Wright Bros. Celebration Dayton -O- June-17-18-1909 This magnificent "Court of Honor" 3 squares long cost the city $3350 to erect. Thousands of electric lights illuminated it at night- All buildings in city decorated in flags & bunting. Notice figures of women on corner pieces holding world in one hand and air-ship in the other- There were 6 of these beautiful corner pieces- This is 3rd & Main Str- Our seats (reserved) were in front of the new court house, back of 4th lamp post in this picture- Grace"


Description of the tetrastyles "with lofty pillars...and beautiful figure of Victory" as printed in the June 17, 1909 issue of the Dayton Daily News. In addition to the four at The Court of Honor, four more tetrastyles were located at Monument Avenue. "Each of the entrances to the Court of Honor have been gaily decorated with evergreen, and placed at the very top of the tetrastyle is a gilded box of evergreen and wonderful artificial flowers." I don't know if there were a total of eight, or a total of six as mentioned on the above postcard, but in any case, the evergreen can be seen on top of the tetrastyles in the photos above.(5)


The Official Program for The Wright Brothers Home Celebration listed the events of the two day celebration. The program below was saved by O.B. Kneisly, who served with Lorin Wright on the Dayton City Commission. On this 5-member commission, Lorin served from 1920-1927. Kneisly served 1921-1925.


O. B. Kneisly's copy, served with Lorin Wright
From scrapbook assembled by O.B. Kneisly, who served with Lorin Wright on Dayton City Commission.(2)



Wilbur and Orville's father, Bishop Milton Wright delivered the Invocation during the Metal presentation ceremony.(2)

The Unofficial Program for The Wright Brothers Home Celebration included pictures of the Wright Family members, of Charlie Taylor, and of their home. Also included were the events planned for the two day celebration, Dayton attractions, and local business advertisements. Perhaps because this was not the "Official" program, the correct spelling of the Wright family members wasn't deemed necessary......








Katharine and Reuchlin's names are misspelled.

 
Lorin's name is misspelled.

Wright Family home at 7 Hawthorn Street (moved to Greenfield Village, Dearborn Michigan and opened to public, 1938).


One of the many attractions available throughout the two day event.

Recommended Reading on this subject-
  • Wright Brothers' Home Days Celebration, 1909, Dayton Salutes Wilbur, Orville and Itself. Photographs by Andrew S. Iddings, Text by Mark Bernstein. Carillon Historical Park, 2003. 
  • Ohio Home of the Wright Brothers, Louis Chmiel, 2013- Part 7,  Chapter 78 Welcome Home.


Notes-
1. Photo by author, taken 2011 from penthouse level of Centre City Building, former United Brethren Publication Building.
2. Program from author's collection.
3. Postcard from author's collection.
4. Framed photo signed by 1909 mayor of Dayton, Edward Burkhart, and presented to the Wright family. From author's collection.
5. Newspapers from author's collection.
6. Close ups of photos from author's collection. The resolution in these period photographs is pretty amazing.
7. From Diaries 1857-1917, Biship Milton Wright, Wright State University, 1999.

Index of Topics