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Sunday, September 11, 2016

Hawthorn Street, Dayton, Ohio- Neighborhood of the Wright Brothers

(Updated 3/14/20) Milton and Susan Wright moved to the Hawthorn street neighborhood in April of 1871. They would maintain ownership of their home, but would temporarily relocate from Dayton from June of 1878 through June of 1884, moving first to Cedar Rapids Iowa, and then to Richmond, Indiana. There would be many church-related return trips for Bishop Milton Wright during these years. His two older sons Reuchlin and Lorin would be employed in Dayton, and room together during a portion of this time period away. After returning to Dayton, the Wright family would reside at 114 N. Summit Street until their tenant Edward H. Williams and his Mother-in-law Susanna Boond moved out of 7 Hawthorn in October of 1885.(13) Milton recorded in his diary February 24th, 1886, "At home, 7 Hawthorne St." The Wright's would live at 7 Hawthorn through April of 1914.
Who were the neighbors of the Wright family during these years between 1871 through 1914? Which families were present while Wilbur and Orville were printing The West Side News, and The Evening Item in 1889 and 1890? Who's homes did they walk by when heading to the Wright Cycle Company at 22 South Williams each morning? When the Brothers returned home in December of 1903, who would have congratulated them for their successful flights? Who were the families that shed the tears and shoveled the mud of the 1913 flood from the basements and first floors of their homes, side by side with Milton, Orville, and Katharine? We know some of the names. Edwin Sines, Orville's childhood friend two doors to the south at 15 Hawthorn, would be associated with Orville's printing business. The Feights, neighbors to the north, remained good friends of the Wright family, and are mentioned many times in Milton's diaries. Some families would remain for decades, while others would be present for just a year or two. 

One family of particular interest, the Billheimers, were recorded to have lived at 21 Hawthorn from 1878 through 1881. Jacob Kemp and Amanda Billheimer's daughter Lulu would eventually marry Reuchlin Wright. Louis Chmiel, author of Ohio, Home of the Wright Brothers, Birthplace of Aviation, had long suspected that the Billheimer home was still standing, but a bit of a mystery shielded the identity of the house, as there was no modern day address known as 21 Hawthorn. The remaining home addresses along the west side of Hawthorn are 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, and 39. Through collaboration with Louis Chmiel, the mystery has been recently solved.(3) The address numbering of these homes changed from the 1870s into the 1880's, and address 21 became address 23. The Jacob and Amanda Billheimer home of 23 Hawthorn street, though privately owned, is still standing, and can be viewed while visiting the Aviation Trail Hawthorn neighborhood. This is exciting news, as unfortunately, so many of the homes associated with the Wright family no longer stand. For more information on the Billheimer's, please read the post
Five Copper Cents- The True Account of Jacob and Amanda Billheimer- Reuchlin Wright's In-Laws 

Hawthorn Street, 1910, looking south from 4th Street, Wright's home second on right. Photo courtesy of Special Collections and Archives, Wright State University (1). First home on the right is 1 Hawthorn, then 7 Hawthorn (Wrights), then 11 Hawthorn, then 15, then 19, and just barely the side of 23 can be seen. To the left, the porch of 6 Hawthorn is visible, and 10 Hawthorn is visible through the porch (set back from the road). The original homes on the left beyond 10 Hawthorn no longer stand.

Hawthorn Street, 2016, looking south from 4th Street, photo by author. The trees that lined both sides of the street in 1910 are long gone. Empty lot on right is location where 1 Hawthorn used to stand. Wright home is represented by partial porch. Original homes 11, 15, 19, 23, and 27 can be seen on right. (15 Hawthorn front porch addition did not exist in 1910). To the left, Wright reproduction home partially visible at corner. 6 and 10 Hawthorn on left are original homes, but homes beyond are newer construction.Photo by author, 2016.

3D aerial view, courtesy of Google Earth, labeled by author, present day view of Hawthorn Street. Homes 6, 10, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, and 39 date to the time the Wright's lived at 7 Hawthorn. (2)  4, 14, and 26 are newer homes. Names listed were residents in 1880. The Wright home was rented to David Bennett in 1880, as the Wrights were living in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

From the 1880 Census, the house numbers are not identified, but the order of the residences visited along west Hawthorn were as follows as the census taker worked northward:
  • Enoch V. Drake
  • Jacob K. Billheimer
  • Andrew Smith
  • Thomas J. Sines
  • Phillip Lavasseur
  • David T. Bennett
  • John Feight 

From the Dayton Directory listings from the 1870's and early 1880's, the addresses along Hawthorn Street were often listed simply as to general location, with no house number given. For example, a listing from 1877 reads  "Drake Enoch V. res w s Hawthorn b 4th and 5th, W. S.", or in other words, Enoch V. Drake residence on west side of Hawthorn between 4th and 5th Streets, West Side of Dayton. In the 1879 Directory, Drakes address is listed for the first time as 27 Hawthorn. Enoch Drake lived at this address through 1889. (Enoch passed away June 10th, 1890, and is buried in section 102, Lot 1266 at Woodland Cemetery and Arboretum.) From examining the Dayton Directories from 1871 through the mid 1880's and beyond, it can be observed that the addresses on the west side of Hawthorn initially were identified as 1, 3, 5, 13, 15, 21, and 27 for the first seven homes working south from 4th Street when a house number was listed. These address identities changed such that by 1884 they had become 1, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, and 27. 

  • Historically we know that Enoch Drake lived at 27 Hawthorn from 1877 through 1889. The 1879-89 Directories identify his address as 27 Hawthorn.
  • The Billheimers lived at 21 Hawthorn as identified in the 1879 through 1881 Directories. In 1878, the Directory simply indicates their address as west side of Hawthorn, between 4th and 5th streets. In 1882, Calvin and Emma Willey are shown as living at 21 Hawthorn, and Nettie Willey is shown as living at 23 Hawthorn.  The 1883 through 1887 Directories list Wm Huffman at 23 Hawthorn. 21 Hawthorn was no longer indicated after 1882. 21 became 23.(3)
  • Andrew Smith was listed in the 1876 and 1877 Directory at 15 Hawthorn. In 1878, Smith is listed at west side of Hawthorne between 4th and 5th. In 1879, Smith was listed at 19 Hawthorn. In 1880 and 81, he's again listed as west side of Hawthorn between 4th and 5th. In 1882, he once again is listed at 15 Hawthorn. By 1883, Smith had moved to Williams Street and the address of 15 Hawthorn would be listed for Thomas Sines thereafter. The former 15 residence of Andrew Smith became 19. 19 Hawthorn would continue to appear in the Directories with varying tenants with Margaret Stewart listed in 1888 and thereafter through 1908.
  • Thomas Sines was listed at 13 Hawthorn in the 1873 Directory, and maintains that number when a number was listed, until 1882. The 1883 Directory listed Sines at 15 Hawthorn and continued to do so through 1906. 13 became 15.
  • Phillip Lavasseur was listed at 5 Hawthorn in the 1877, 1879, and 1880 Directories. After 1880, address 5 no longer appeared. Address 11 was first listed in 1884, and then thereafter. 5 became 11.(5)
  • The Wright home address historically has been known as 7 Hawthorn Street. However, in the first decade of the home's existence, it's address was twice listed as 3 Hawthorn.The 1874, 75, 76 Dayton Directories listed the address as w s Hawthorn 2nd door s of 4th. W.S. (west side of Hawthorn, 2nd door south of 4th street, West Side of Dayton). The 1877 Directory listed the address as Wright Rev. Milton, res 3 Hawthorn near 4th, W.S.. The 1880 Directory listed the address as 3 Hawthorn with a border Cyrus Hoffman, a carriage painter. The 1880 Census appears to indicate the David Bennett family rented the Wright home. (Perhaps the Bennet family moved out mid 1880 after the census, and the Hoffman family moved in, and then recorded in the 1880-81 Dayton Directory). The 1882 Directory and thereafter listed the address as 7 Hawthorn. 7 Hawthorn was listed for the Marquis family in 1883. In 1885, Edward H. and Susanna Williams and her mother Susanna Boond were listed(13).  The Wrights were then listed at 7 Hawthorn in the 1886 Directory. 3 became 7. 
  • The Feights were listed at 1 Hawthorn in 1875, and this number appeared now and then, and eventually became constant from 1884 on. 1 remained 1. Another note- The Sanborn Insurance Map of 1897-98 lists this address as 5 Hawthorn, with the rest of the addresses listed per their modern numbers as 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, 39 (31 and 35 no longer stand). However, the number 5 was never used for this address in the Dayton Directories.

Addresses 2016 Hawthorn neighborhood, courtesy of Montgomery County GIS. Click on photo to enlarge.
By 1890, the Billheimer's had moved to Birmingham Alabama, Enoch Drake had passed away, neighbors such as the Feights and Sines remained, and others had moved in and out. Wilbur and Orville were listed in the 1890 Dayton Directory as editors and publishers of The Evening Item, with their office at 1210 W. 3rd St.

Hawthorn Street Neighbors in 1890 (9)

  • 1 Hawthorn     John (John G. F. & Son) & Anna Feight, Alfred Feight (John G. F. & Son), John E Feight (clerk), George Feight (grain buyer)
  • 7 Hawthorn   Rev. Milton Wright (publisher), Wilbur Wright, Orville Wright (Wilbur & Orville Wright, editors and Publishers The Evening Item, 1210 W. 3rd St), Lorin Wright (bookkeeper), Katharine Wright
  • 11 Hawthorn    William (clerk, The Stoddard Manufacturing Co) & Eleanor Wagner
  • 15 Hawthorn    Thomas (carpenter) & Isabelle Sines, Edwin Sines (printer)
  • 19 Hawthorn    Mrs. Margaret Stewart
  • 23 Hawthorn    Gideon Harter (watchman)
  • 27 Hawthorn    Katie Thomas (housekeeper) (10)
  • 39 Hawthorn  E. W. Shain (clothing renovator), William Shain (grinder), Gertrude Shain, Maude Shain
  • 4 Hawthorn    Charles Whitfield (traveling salesman), Bert Pexton (boarder), David Naismith (boarder)                      
  • 6 Hawthorn    Charles Murphy (carpenter)
  • 10 Hawthorn  Perry Pease (painter)

1897 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, courtesy of Library of Congress Archives. The numbering of the Feight's home is listed as 5 Hawthorn, but the Dayton Directories list this address as 1 Hawthorn during this time period. West and east Sanborn maps of Hawthorn combined to one image by Author.

27 Hawthorn, home of Enoch Drake from 1873 through 1890. In the July 13, 1889 West Side News, Wilbur and Orville reported that "Grand-father and Grand-mother Drake are lying in critical condition at their residence on Hawthorne street." Wilbur and Orville reported in The Evening Item, June 11, 1890, "Enoch V. Drake, one of the oldest citizens of the West Side, died at his home on Hawthorne street last night at ten o'clock. He was born in New Jersey, in 1801, so that he was at the time of his death in the nintieth year of his age. He had been confined to his room for over a year, previous to his decease. His bereaved companion is also nearing four score and ten years of age." Photo courtesy of Mont Co GIS.

Billheimer home still standing in Dayton Ohio.
23 Hawthorn, home of Jacob and Amanda Billheimer from 1878 through 1881.  Their daughter Lulu would marry Reuchlin Wright in 1886. Significance of this home was identified by Louis Chmiel, author of 2013 book "Ohio Home of the Wright Brothers, Birthplace of Aviation". Photo by author of blog, 2016. (4)

For more detail on Jacob and Amanda Billheimer, their daughter Lulu, and son-in-law Reuchlin Wright,  please read the post:
Five Copper Cents- The True Account of Jacob and Amanda Billheimer- Reuchlin Wright's In-Laws

19 Hawthorn, home of Margaret Stewart, son William Penland, and grandson Oscar Burgman from 1888 through 1908. Photo by author, 2016. In the January 11, 1890 West Side News, Orville provided a list of residents dealing with La Grippe (influenza), and Mrs. Stewart of Hawthorne Street is mentioned, as was Oscar Burtman (Burgman). In the April 30, 1890 Evening Item, Wilbur and Orville reported that Mrs. Stewart of Hawthorne Street was suffering from rheumatism. Apparently the Brothers kept an eye on Margaret's health!

Edwin Sines boyhood home, friend of Orville and Wilbur Wright.
15 Hawthorn, home of Thomas Sines from 1873 through 1906. Milton Wright wrote in his diary September 14, 1906, "In the afternoon about 3'oclock, my neighbor, Thomas J. Sines was killed by the cars. He is past 74 years of age." The family would move after 1907. Thomas's son Edwin was Orville Wright's printing associate and friend. Photo courtesy of Mont Co GIS.

11 Hawthorn, home of William Webbert Wagner from 1886 through 1904.  (Phillip Lavasseur was next door neighbor to the Wrights prior to their move to Cedar Rapids, living at 11 Hawthorn from 1877 through 1880). In the April 30, 1890 issue of the Evening Item, Wilbur and Orville reported that William Wagner was having a cellar dug at the rear of his residence to prepare for building a kitchen. Milton Wright wrote in his diary October 16, 1904, "My nearest neighbor Wm Webbert Wagner died about 7:00 in the evening. I had known him 33 years or more." William's wife Eleanor would remain at this address through 1923. Milton's diary entry of March 25, 1913, "Alarm about the waters rising. Russell Hartzell comes with a canoe after Mrs. Wagner, and takes in me. We glide down Hawthorne and on Williams Street to William Hartzell's & they receive us most Christianly. The waters rise six or eight feet by 9:00...."  Photo by author, 2016. Side windows near front, and front porch are modern additions.

Wright Brother's neighborhood, 1899.
Porch of 7 Hawthorn, and 1 Hawthorn, looking north to 4th Street, between 1897 and 1901. Photo courtesy of Library of Congress. 7 Hawthorn was moved to The Henry Ford Greenfield Village in Deerborn, Michigan by Henry Ford with Orville Wright's blessing and opened to the public in 1938. Had this move not taken place, due to the close proximity of the two homes, it is quite possible that 7 Hawthorn would have burned to the ground when 1 Hawthorn burned in 1993. Daniel Henderson is pictured here, son of Charles Henderson, neighbor at 4 Hawthorn. Daniel was born June of 1895, and would be 4 years old in this photo if  an 1899 photo.(8)

Recreation of front porch, 7 Hawthorn.
Lot of 7 Hawthorn, previous location of Wright home, photo by author, 2012.

Dayton Ohio Wright Brother neighborhood.
From left to right, 23 Hawthorn, 19 Hawthorn, 15 Hawthorn,  & 11 Hawthorn, looking north toward 4th street, photo by author, 2016. 

4 Hawthorn and 6 Hawthorn, photo by author, 2016. 4 Hawthorn is a reproduction of the Wright home, constructed in 2003. 6 Hawthorn was originally less than half its current size. The home was enlarged in 1901.

Two 1897 to 1901 photos combined by author to provide view of 4 and 6 Hawthorn homes located across from the Wright home. Katharine Wright is joining her friends Silliman and Osborne for a ride. 4 Hawthorn no longer stands. 6 Hawthorn was doubled in size within a number of years after these photos were taken. 6 Hawthorn was remodeled as a duplex in 1901,  with the addresses 6 and 8 starting in 1902. (6) Photos courtesy of Library of Congress.

10 Hawthorn,  home of Ira and Mary Fisher from 1900 through 1912. Ira was a market vender. Photo courtesy of Mont Co GIS.

1029 West Fourth Street, photo by author, 2016. Home is identified as constructed in 1909 per the Mont Co GIS website, yet this home was likely photographed in 1901 from the front yard of 7 Hawthorn in the photo below. The home has been enlarged and porch added to front.

1029 West Fourth Street, 1901 to 1914 photo taken from front yard of 7 Hawthorn, photo courtesy of Library of Congress. This photo likely dates to 1899 to 1901, and likely was taken same year as photo below.(11)

The Henderson boys, photo courtesy of Library of Congress. The Henderson family lived at 4 Hawthorn from 1899 through 1901. By comparison to the photo above, the boys are standing in their yard at corner of Hawthorn and 4th Streets. Behind them is 4th Street heading east (to the right). The home across the street can be seen in the photo above, just east of address 1029. The Library of Congress identifies these boys as Lester, Willie, and Paul. This appears to be incorrect; their names were Lester, Willie, and Daniel. If this photo is dated to 1901, Clarence Lester Henderson would be 12, Willie (William Allen Henderson) at 10, and Daniel H Henderson at 6. (Library of Congress dated photo between 1897 and 1904)

Three photos by the Wright brothers placed in panoramic style by the author for a view from front yard of 7 Hawthorn looking north to homes on 4th street, and view of east side of Hawthorn to 4 and 6 Hawthorn. Ignore the foreground and look to the homes in the distance, and the illusion works somewhat. Photos courtesy of Library of Congress. Click on panorama to enlarge.

George Feight, neighbor from 1 Hawthorn, sent a letter to Wilbur and Orville at Kitty Hawk informing them that Samuel Langley's October 7th 1903 flight attempt had failed. Langley's next and final attempt would also fail, on December 8th.
Wilbur and Orville, after four successful flights on the morning of December 17th, 1903,  returned home from Kitty Hawk N.C. December 23rd in time for the Christmas celebration with the family. Their neighbors and their occupations in parenthesis at that time are listed below.

Hawthorn Street Neighbors in 1903
  • 1 Hawthorn    John (carpenter) & Anna Feight, George Feight (clerk)
  • 7 Hawthorn    Rev. Milton Wright (bishop United Brethren Old Constitution), Wilbur Wright (Wright Cycle Co), Orville Wright (Wright Cycle Co), Katharine Wright (teacher)
  • 11 Hawthorn  Rachael Wagner, William (clerk, The Stoddard Manufacturing Co) & Eleanor Wagner
  • 15 Hawthorn  Thomas (carpenter) & Isabelle Sines, Edwin Sines (The Barney & Smith Car Co)
  • 19 Hawthorn  Margaret Stewart (widow), Frank Penland (painter), Elizabeth Northup (widow), Bernice Northup (milliner)
  • 23 Hawthorn  John Emerick (salesman), Ethel Wellbaum (border)
  • 27 Hawthorn  Daniel (helper) & Sarah Whipp, Mabel Whipp
  • 39 Hawthorn  Otto (conductor) & Edna Smith 
  • 4 Hawthorn    Frank Harbison (salesman), Henry Harbison (conductor), William Harbison (pharmacist), Minnie Harbison                        
  • 6 Hawthorn    Frank Rairdon (pressman), Ida Rairdon (nurse), Ruth Rairdon, Sarah Rairdon (widow)
  • 10 Hawthorn  Ira (huskster) & Mary Fisher
The Wright Brothers 1909 Home Celebration, photo courtesy of Special Collection and Archives, Wright State University. The Wright home of 7 Hawthorn is at center, with 1 Hawthorn to the right, and the corner of 11 Hawthorn (still standing) to the left.

Hawthorn Street during the March 1913 flood, looking south from 4th street. To the left is 4 Hawthorn, and the roof and porch of 6 Hawthorn can be seen beyond. To the right, 1 Hawthorn, then the Wright's home of 7 Hawthorn with porch, then 11 Hawthorn. The side of 15 Hawthorn is visible, and 19 and 23 Hawthorn blend in with the trees and six feet of water. Photo courtesy of Special Collections and Archives, Wright State University.

2016 view of the Hawthorn neighborhood in dryer times. Looking south from 4th Street, 6 Hawthorn's roof barely shows above the reproduction Wright Home on the lot of 4 Hawthorn. To the right, the partial porch on the lot of 7 Hawthorn can be seen, and beyond is 11 Hawthorn, then 15, then 19, then 23, and 27. Photo by author.

 Milton wrote to Wilbur June 17, 1911, and stated, "We have changed neighbors a little since you left home. The house opposite to ours, has on the north side, Shoemaker Shaffer's widowed daughter and her four girls and one boy: and Mother Shaffer lives with them. In the place of Rhoads north of us (1 Hawthorn) is a man and wife and little three year old boy. It seems a good exchange, though Rhoads still keeps a room. Roy Heywood who lived in Mrs. Wagner's house, has moved away. Like a clean chip in a mush pot."

From Milton's notes at end of 1913 diary entries, Tues. 25, March, 1913 "About 8:00 forenoon the waters burst onto our Street. I put on my overcoat, ready to go. A canoe came for Mrs E. Wagner, and the boys said I could get in too. It glided across to Williams St. to William Harzell's, next north of the Baptist Church.....A swift river flowed down Williams Street, and, toward Hawthorn Street, many sheds floated and were wrecked Tuesday...It seemed as if a widow and an old man had been Providentially provided for. We knew not what our near neighbors were doing, except Snyder's north of us....The flood was second to Noah's."
March 27, 1913, "At least two-thirds of the City was submerged. A considerable part, there was water in the second story of the buildings. The water came up 5 feet and five inches in our lower rooms. A few houses were washed away. Three or more fires broke out One burned just west of Orville's office...Orville's automobile was submerged.....Orville lost a pianola costing 500 dollars, and other furniture....."
April 29, 1913, Milton's diary entry indicated that Mrs. Wagner "took supper with us." Mrs. Wagner was their next door neighbor at 11 Hawthorn. Milton Wright's diary entry of May 11, 1913 "We dismissed Journal carrier, and employed Eugene Heywood (Haywood)". Eugene was the 11 year old son of Newton and Loretta Haywood of 4 Hawthorn. The Haywoods lived at 4 Hawthorn from 1904 through 1923.

Hawthorn Street Neighbors in 1913
  • 1 Hawthorn    Charles (engineer) & Josephine Crume, Benjamin Hill (fireman), John Rhoads (trav supervisor)(12)
  • 7 Hawthorn    Rev. Milton Wright, Orville Wright (pres The Wright Co), Katharine Wright
  • 11 Hawthorn  Rachael Wagner (student), Eleanor Wagner (widow)
  • 15 Hawthorn 
  • 19 Hawthorn 
  • 23 Hawthorn  William (salesman) & Jennie Haines, Cyrus Haines (clk cigar stand Hotel Beckel),
  • 27 Hawthorn  John (police) & Catherine Perry, Catherine Conley (widow)
  • 39 Hawthorn  Horace (engineer) & Jennie Reichard
  • 4 Hawthorn    Newton (police) & Loretta (nurse) Haywood, Ralph Haywood (painter)                      
  • 6 Hawthorn    Howard (molder) & Bertha Arnold
  • 8 Hawthorn    William (painter) & Edith Prentice
  • 10 Hawthorn  Kifer (fireman) & Anna Kline

In January of 1948, after Orville Wright's passing, Eugene Haywood shared these memories, "As a boy on Hawthorn st., where the Wright family first lived, near our home, I learned to honor and respect both Orville Wright and his brother, Wilbur. The quiet and unassuming dignity and honesty, which marked their everyday life, was noted, but it came as a normal family characteristic. We have lost a friend, Dayton a great citizen and the world a noble individual."(12)

Neighbors of Wright Brothers, 1912, 1913
Eleanor and Billy Prentiss of 8 Hawthorn and Enyeart Crume of 1 Hawthorn. Photo taken from front yard of 7 Hawthorn, likely 1912 or 1913. Photo courtesy of Library of Congress.(7)

I will add other information to this post over time, so if this subject is of interest, please check back for updates.

Related Posts-
Five Copper Cents- The True Account of Jacob and Amanda Billheimer

The 1913 Dayton Flood and the Wright Family 

Index of Topics

Related Links- (added 5/21/17)
On the Aviation Trail in the Wright Brother's West Side Neighborhood in Dayton, Ohio

Recommended Reading-
"The Land Across the River: The First 150 Years of the West Side of Dayton" by Curt Dalton, 2020.

(updated 9/19/16)
(updates 9/24/16) 
(updates 7/2/18) Added MW 1911 letter to Wilbur, neighbors at 1 and 6 Hawthorn. 
(updates 7/21/18) Added 1897 Sanborn Fire Insurance map. 
(update 10/12/18) Added quote by Eugene K. Haywood 
(update 3/14/20) Revised Marquis/Williams/Boond 7 Hawthorn info based on findings of Curt Dalton.
  1. Photo imperfections have been removed by author.  
  2. The Montgomery County GIS website lists dates of construction for the Hawthorn homes, but the dates are approximate. An example- Enoch Drake lived at 27 Hawthorn beginning in 1873, yet the date of construction for this address is listed as 1895 which is incorrect by 22 years. Similarly, 23 Hawthorn is listed with date of construction of 1895, but dates to the 1870's. 19 Hawthorn is listed as constructed in 1905, but dates to at least 1874. The Sines lived at 15 Hawthorn beginning in 1873, yet the construction date is listed as 1900. Per the Montgomery County GIS website, the remaining homes that date to the years during which the Wright family lived at 7 Hawthorn are numbered 6, 10, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, and 39.  A reproduction of the Wright 7 Hawthorn home was constructed in 2003 on the empty lot where the original 4 Hawthorn home stood. 14 Hawthorn is indicated with a construction date of 1945. 26 Hawthorn is listed with a construction date of 2005.
  3. Louis Chmiel, author of Ohio Home of the Wright Brothers Birthplace of Aviation, 2013, had documented the 21 Hawthorn address for the Billheimers, and had identified the anomalies in the Dayton City Directories with the numbering of homes changing from the 1870's into the 1880's. For the Billheimer residence location, the question to answer was if the 21 Hawthorn listing referred to the modern day address of 23 Hawthorn, or 19 Hawthorn. In collaboration with Louis Chmiel, additional study of the Directories, using manual searches, and utilizing text search methods available through, a listing of occupants at each address from the early 1870's through the 1900's was compiled, and the pattern of address changes emerged. The 1880 Census was a helpful key to provide confidence in the analysis and final conclusions. 
  4. Jacob and Amanda Billheimer would move to 10 South Williams in 1882, and then to 37 South Williams from 1883 through 1886. 37 South Williams no longer stands. 
  5. The address of 11 Hawthorn appears in the 1875 Directory under the name of William Thomas, but the fonts for the two 1's differ, suggesting that this is a typo as it is the only time 11 appears until 1884. 
  6. The 1900 Census lists 6 Hawthorn. The 1901 Dayton Directory does not list 6 Hawthorn. The 1902 Directory lists 6 & 8 Hawthorn, and thereafter. Remodel appears then to have been during 1901 with no occupancy during construction. 
  7. Photo is identified by Library of Congress as taken between 1901 and 1928. Likely date is 1912 or 1913. The Crume family lived at 1 Hawthorn from 1911 through 1913. The Prentice family lived at 8 Hawthorn in 1913, and at 102 S Williams in 1912 (directly behind the Wright home). The 1910 Census shows William and Edith living with Edith's father at 316 Edgewater Street. At that time, their daughter Eleanor was 2, and their son Billy was 1 month old. So, in this photo, is Billy 2 or 3 years old?
  8. Library of Congress lists this photo as taken between 1897 and 1901. However, the Henderson's didn't move to 4 Hawthorn until 1899. Their name doesn't appear in the Dayton Directories of 1898 or 1897. Therefore, more likely date of this photo is 1899 to 1901, and Daniel would be 4-6 years old. 
  9. Names as listed in the 1890-91 Dayton Directory. Spouses and children typically not listed in this directory unless employed.
  10. Enoch Drake had passed away June 11, 1890; he and his wife living at this address since 1873. 
  11. The tree in the front yard of the home across 4th street from 4 Hawthorn has the exact same branch configuration in both photos suggesting the two photos were likely taken the same day, or at least the same year. The 1029 West 4th Street photo offers another tree comparison. Compare the tree on Hawthorn adjacent to 4 Hawthorn home, to the same tree in the photo of Katharine and friends. The tree in the  Katharine photo has a sizable branch to the left that has been trimmed off in the 1029 West 4th Street photo, placing the 1029 West 4th Street photo at a later time. 
  12. Quote from Dayton Daily News, January 31, 1948 issue, "Tributes Paid to Memory of Orville Wright." Eugene K. Haywood, Dayton accountant and longtime friend of the Wright brothers. 
  13. From Curt Dalton's "The Land Across the River: The First 150 Years of the West Side of Dayton", 2020. Numerous historians have written that when the Marquis family lease expired, the Wright's moved back to 7 Hawthorn. The Marquis family, however, had previously moved from 7 Hawthorn, and as noted by Curt Dalton, "In October , 1885, the Wright family returned to their old home at 7 Hawthorn Street, the lease with their renter having expired- or so sources say. My research shows that in 1885, Edward H. and Susanna Williams, along with her mother, Susanna Boond, were living in the Wright home on Hawthorn Street, Robert Marquis having moved to 6 North Fulton....."